Proof as a Convincing Communication that Answers -- Why?

by David W. Henderson

Department of Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-7901

dwh@math.cornell.edu

I believe that much of the problem of teaching proofs and proving in the undergraduate curriculum is that we do not give a useful definition of what we mean by "proof". There is a formal definition of proof but, in my experience, this is not what most mathematicians use; and I find that the formal notion of proof deadens the class and the students learning. I propose the following definition as being closer to the way that mathematicians actually work and closer to how we want our students to work.

*A proof is a convincing communication that answer -- Why?*

It is not formal proofs -- computers can now find and check these. What we need are alive human proofs which:

are *communications* -- when we prove something we are not done until we can communicate it to others and the nature of this communication, of course, depends on the community to which one is communicating and is thus in part a social phenomenon.

are *convincing* -- a proof "works" when it convinces others. Of course some persons become convinced too easily so we are more confident in the proof if it convinces some one who was originally a skeptic. Also, a proof that convinces me may not convince you or my students.

*answer -- Why?* -- The proof should explain, especially it should explain something that the hearer of the proof wants to have explained. I think most people in mathematics have had the experience of logically following a proof step by step but are still dissatisfied because it did not answer questions were of the sort: "Why is it true?" "Where did it come from?" "How did you see it?" "What does it mean?".

I will report on how this definition of proof has changed my teaching and changed the ways in which my students learn and desire to do proofs.

I will give examples of standard "proofs" in textbooks that deaden learning.

I will give examples on how this definition has changed my teaching.

I will give examples of student proofs stimulated by this definition.

**Related References:**

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