Applications of EF games: Expressive power of FO logic
Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé games have been traditionally used to prove inexpressiblity results for first order logic.
Metodology Theorem (Ehrenfeucht, Fraïssé):
Given a property P, there is no first order sentence that expresses P, if and only if, for
each positive integer n, one can find two graphs An
- property P is true on An
- property P is false on Bn
- A~nB, i.e. the Duplicator can win the n-move EF game on A and B.
A graph is said to be "even" if it has an even number of nodes.
The property of a graph to be "even" is not expressible in first order logic.
For each n, we consider the graphs An = G2n, and
Bn = G2n+1, where G is depicted below:
The Duplicator wins the n-moves EF game on An
. Its winning strategy is simply that if the
Spoiler chooses ai
in the i-th round, the Duplicator chooses bi
. (Compare this with the example in
lesson 3! What is the difference?).
Exercise 1: A graph is called 2-colorable if one can color each node in either red or green such that
no two adjacent nodes have the same color. Show that "2-colorability" is not expressible in first order logic.
hint: Think about the fact that the property that a graph has even number of nodes is not expressible in FO.
How is this property related to 2-colorability?
A graph is called Eulerian if it has an Eulerian cycle, i.e. a cycle that visits each node exactly once.
Proove that the property of a graph of being Eulerian is not expressible in first-order logic.
Look the following graph:
is Eulerian if and only if n is an even number.
- So, for each n, choose An = C2n, and Bn = C2n+1.
- Show that the Duplicator wins the n-move EF game on An and Bn.
- Appy the Metodology Theorem to conclude that "Eulerian" is not expressible in first order logic.