Topology of Numbers
This is an introduction to elementary number theory from a geometric point of view, as opposed to the usual strictly algebraic approach. A large part of the book is devoted to studying quadratic forms in two variables with integer coefficients, a very classical topic going back to Fermat, Euler, Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss, but from a perspective that emphasizes Conway's much more recent notion of the topograph of a quadratic form.
You can download a pdf file of the current version of the book, around 330 pages, posted in May 2021. The book is now essentially complete and I am trying to do finial polishing. A few more exercises need to be added, especially in the later chapters. Publication should be in late 2021.
Chapter 0. Preview
Chapter 1. The Farey Diagram
The Mediant Rule.
Chapter 2. Continued Fractions
Finite Cntinued Fractions.
Infinite Continued Fractions.
Linear Diophantine Equations
Chapter 3. Symmetries of the Farey Diagram
Linear Fractional Transformations.
Continued Fractions Again.
Chapter 4. Quadratic Forms
Periodic Separator Lines.
Continued Fractions Once More.
Chapter 5. Classification of Quadratic Forms
The Four Types of Forms.
Equivalence of Forms.
The Class Number.
Symmetries of Forms.
Charting All Forms.
Chapter 6. Representations by Quadratic Forms
Three Levels of Complexity.
Representions in a Fixed Discriminant.
Genus and Characters.
Proof of Quadratic Reciprocity.
Chapter 7. The Class Group for Quadratic Forms
Multiplication of Forms.
The Class Group for Forms.
Finite Abelian Groups.
Symmetry and the Class Group.
Genus and Rational Equivalence.
Chapter 8. Quadratic Fields
Unique Factorization via the Euclidean Algorithm.
The Correspondence Between Forms and Ideals.
The Ideal Class Group.
Unique Factorization of Ideals.
Applications to Forms.